Like all else a language is a structure that has been built up and more clearly defined over history. Thanks to the in-depth research of linguists we have a valuable foundation to refer to. Present day values of a language have been concluded as the following 8 elements.
1. Phonemes: The smallest distinct units of sound in a language. For example, in English, "cat" is made up of the phonemes /k/, /æ/, and /t/.
2. Morphemes: The smallest units of meaning in a language. They can be words or parts of words (affixes) like prefixes and suffixes. For instance, in the word "unintelligible," "un-" and "-ible" are morphemes.
3. Syntax: The rules governing how words and phrases are structured into sentences. Syntax determines the order of words, such as subject-verb-object in English.
4. Grammar: The set of rules that govern how words and sentences are formed and used in a language. This includes rules for tense, gender, number, and more.
5. Semantics: The study of meaning in language. It deals with how words, phrases, and sentences convey meaning and how people interpret and understand language.
6. Vocabulary: The collection of words and their meanings in a language. A language's vocabulary can be extensive and constantly evolving.
7. Pragmatics: The study of how context influences the interpretation of language. It considers factors like tone, context, and the speaker's intentions in communication.
8. Writing System: Some languages have a writing system that uses symbols or characters to represent sounds or words. Examples include the Latin alphabet used for English and the characters used in Chinese.
These elements combine to form a complex system that allows people to communicate and express their thoughts and ideas through language.
Although, we'd believe comprehension of a language falls much deeper than just the rules listed above, these structures are integral for overall linguistic development.